Saturday, October 10, 2009

SHORT NOTES






TRACK I AND TRACK II DIPLOMACY:  The term "track-one diplomacy" refers to official governmental diplomacy, or "a technique of state action, [which] is essentially a process whereby communications from one government go directly to the decision-making apparatus of another". [2] Thus, track-one diplomacy is conducted by official representatives of a state or state-like authority and involves interaction with other state or state-like authorities: heads of state, state department or ministry of foreign affairs officials, and other governmental departments and ministries.  Track-one diplomacy may also be referred to as "first track" or "first tier" diplomacy.  These official diplomatic efforts can be distinguished from unofficial interactions, which may involve conflict resolution specialists, private citizens, non-governmental organizations, or businesses.  Such unofficial interactions are referred to as "Track II Diplomacy" In the metaphor of track one and track-two diplomacy, each type of diplomatic effort proceeds along a different track, just as separate trains might follow different tracks. 



The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of 16 countries in the East Asian region. EAS meetings are held after annualASEAN leaders’ meetings. The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur on December 14, 2005.


The Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an international organisation with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. It groups 57 member states, from the Middle EastAfricaCentral AsiaCaucasusBalkansSoutheast Asia and South Asia. The official languages of the organisation are ArabicEnglish and French.On August 5, 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of "human rights" in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law







Most favoured nation (MFN) is a status awarded by one nation to another in international trade. It means that the receiving nation will be granted all trade advantages — such as lowtariffs — that any other nation also receives. In effect, a nation with MFN status will not be treated worse than any other nation with MFN status. In the United States, MFN is calledpermanent normal trade relations.The members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which include all developed nations, must accord MFN status to each other. Exceptions allow for preferential treatment of developing countries, regional free trade areas and customs unions. Together with the principle of national treatment, MFN is one of the cornerstones of WTO trade law.

Structural unemployment is long-term and chronic unemployment arising from imbalances between the skills and other characteristics of workers in the market and the needs of employers.It involves a mismatch between workers looking for jobs and the vacancies available, even though the number of vacancies may be similar to the number of unemployed people. In this case, the unemployed workers lack the needed skills, or are in a different geographical region to the vacancies.


The Statue of Liberty , officially titled Liberty Enlightening the World ,dedicated on October 28, 1886, is a monument commemorating the centennial of the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence, given to the United States by the people of France to represent the friendship between the two countries established during the American Revolution.



Frictional unemployment involves people in the midst of transiting between jobs, searching for new ones; it is compatible with full employment. It is sometimes called search unemploymentand can be voluntary. New entrants (such as graduating students) and re-entrants (such as former homemakers) can also suffer a spell of frictional unemployment.

The Mau Mau Uprising of 1952 to 1960 was an insurgency by Kenyan peasants against the British colonialist rule. The core of the resistance was formed by members of the Kikuyu ethnic group, along with smaller numbers of Embu and Meru. The uprising failed militarily, though it hastened Kenyan independence and motivated Africans in other countries to fight against colonial rule.

The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderates by Hutus under theHutu Power ideology.

Idi Amin Dada commonly known as Idi Amin, was the President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Amin joined the British colonial regiment, the King's African Rifles, in 1946, and eventually held the rank of Major General and Commander of theUgandan Army. Amin took power in a military coup in January 1971, deposing Milton Obote.

The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or OAPEC is a multi-governmental organization headquartered in Kuwait which coordinates energy policies in Arab nations, and whose main stated purpose is developmental.

The Universal Postal Union is an international organization that coordinates postal policies among member nations, and hence the worldwide postal system. Each member country agrees to the same set of terms for conducting international postal duties. Universal Postal Union's headquarters are located in BerneSwitzerland.

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), a specialized agency of the United Nations, was established as an international financial institution in 1977 as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference. IFAD is dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in developing countries. Seventy-five per cent of the world’s poor live in rural areas in developing countries, yet only 4% of official development assistance goes to agriculture.

Rogue state is a term applied by some international theorists to states considered threatening to the world's peace. This means meeting certain criteria, such as being ruled by authoritarian regimes that severely restrict human rights, sponsor terrorism, and seek to proliferateweapons of mass destruction.

Euro Control:International norms for vehicular pollution control.Euro I,II,III exist.In India Bharat I.II,III are in use.

Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC) was established on November 10, 2000 at Vientiane in the First MGC Ministerial Meeting. It comprises six Member countries namely, IndiaThailandBurmaCambodiaLaos and Vietnam. They emphasised four areas of cooperation, which aretourismcultureeducation, and transportation linkage in order to be solid foundation for future trade and investment cooperation in the region.

computer virus ( VITAL INFORMATION RESOURCES UNDER SIEGE) is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer. The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malwareadware, and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. A true virus can only spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to the target computer; for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy diskCDDVD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer.




Repo rate is a discount rate at which a central bank repurchases government securities from the commercial banks, depending on the level of money supply it decides to maintain in the country's monetary system. To temporarily expand the money supply, the central bank decreasesrepo rates (so that banks can swap their holdings of government securities for cash), to contract the money supply it increases the repo rates. Alternatively, the central bank decides on a desired level of money supply and lets the market determine the appropriate repo rate.
The Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan on July 31972.It followed from the war between the two nations in the previous year that had led to the independence of East Pakistan as Bangladesh. The agreement laid down the principles that should govern their future relations.




The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT or NNPT) is a treaty to limit the spread (proliferation) of nuclear weapons, opened for signature on July 1, 1968. There are currently 189 countries party to the treaty, five of whichhave nuclear weapons: the United StatesRussia, the United KingdomChina and France (also permanent members of the UN Security Council).Only four recognized sovereign states are not parties to the treaty: IndiaIsraelPakistan and North Korea.




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