Saturday, May 9, 2009

INDIA-PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CONCLUDING PART

Some of the important vegetations area wise

Tropical wet evergreen-Bamboo,jamun,cane,mahogany, shisham, ebony,white shader,gurjan eg-A&N, Western part of western ghat
Tropical semi evergreen-Irul,Indian chestnut,rosewood,laurel,kadam eg,Lakshadweep
Tropical moist deciduous-Sal,teak,bamboo eg-Bengal,Bihar,Eastern UP
Tropical dry deciduous-Sal,teak,sandal eg-Karnataka,MP,TN
Swamp and Littoral-Sundari,garan,hetal,keora,gewa,agar eg-sundarbans
Tropical thorny forest-acacia,neem,khair,babul,cactus,dates eg-gujarat,rajasthan,bundelkhand
Montane forest-Rhododendron,pine,fir,spruce,birch,oak Eg-Himalayas
  • sal is the most numerous among all types of vegetation in India(12%),followed by teak(8%)
  • Forest coverage highest in MP and lowest in Haryana
WETLANDS

Loriga-Andhra Pradesh
Pt Calimere-Tamil Nadu
Pichavaram-Tamilnadu
Ratnagiri-Maharashtra
Achra Cundapore-Karnataka and Maharashtra
Vembanad-kerala
Bhittar kanika-Orissa

SOIL
  • Khadar-new alluvial, fertile soil
  • Bhangar-Old alluvial soil.Middle pleistocoene
  • Kankar-lime nodules few meters below the surface of bhangar
  • Bhur-alkaline khadar
  • Bhabar-Alluvial fans at the foothills of shivalik
  • Terai-murshy land to the south of bhabar
  • Black soil-Highest % of soil in India.Black color due to titaniferous magnetite or iron.also known as reguda soil as cotton in AP is known as Reguda.Poor in P,N and organic matters
  • Red soil-Rich in Potash
  • Laterite soil-rich in iron,aluminium and manganese and thus infertile.brick is prepared from it
  • Desert soil-Formed due to mechanical disintegration of rocks,rich in phosphate
  • Saline soil-Also known as Reh,kallar, thur,rakar,chopan,usar.High Ca,Na, k content
ENVIRIONMENT
  • Out of 15 biosphere reserves 4 are UNESCO sites-Gulf of mannar,sundarbans,nilgiri and nanda devi
  • India is a party to UNFCC
  • National Institute of animal welfare-faridabad
  • Ozone depleting substances- Halon,CFC,CHBr3,CHCl3,CCl4
  • Central pollution control board-1974
  • Coral reef found in Gulf of mannar, A&N,Lakshadweep,Gulf of kachchh
  • Hawksbill turtle is found in A& N and Tamil Nadu
  • Arna or wild buffalo in Assam and MP
  • Centre for social forestry-Allahabad
  • Inst of forest management-Bhopal
  • Salim Ali centre for ornithology-Coimbatore
  • Heritera kanikensis found in Bittarkanika(orissa)
  • Rhizophora annamalaya-Pichavaram(TN)
  • Jim Corbett national park earlier known as Hailey National Park is the earliest national park of India

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