Tuesday, May 5, 2009

INDIAN GEOGRAPHY PART I RIVER SYSTEM

Ganga

Left Bank Tributaries-Chambal, Sind,Betwa,Ken,Son
Right Bank Tributaries- Gomti,Sarda,Ghaghra, Gandak, Koshi

Projects:
Chambal- Rana Pratap Sagar, Jawahar Sagar,Gandhi Sagar
Betwa-Matatila
Son-Rihand Valley, Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar(India's largest man made dam),Banasagar
Bhagirathii-Bhilangana- Tehri
Ghaghra- Chibro , Sardar Sahayak

Mahanadi

Left Bank Tributaries-Tel
Right Bank Tributaries-Seonath, Brahmanai,Suvarnrekha, Vaitarani

Dams: Hirakud( Largest mainstream dam in the world), Tikapara, Naraj

Godavari

Origin:Trambak plateu near Nasik

Left Bank- Penganga,Wardha,Wainganga, Indravati,Savari
Right bank-Manjira

Projects:
Pochampad, Nizam Sagar,Dhawaleswaram

Krishna

Origin:Mahabaleswar near Pune

Left Bank- Bhima, Sina
Right Bank-Ghatprabha, Malprabha, Tungabhadra, Hagari

Projects:
Tungabhadra,Srisaila,Nagarjuna Sagar,Koyna, Alamati

Kaveri
Origin:Talakauveri, Brahmagiri hills

Projects and dams: Krishnaraja sagar, Mettur( Stanley reservoir is on this),Grand Anikut canal(India's oldest canal),Sharavati,Shivsamudram,Mahatma Gandhi Project

West Flowing Rivers

Luni


Origin: Amansagar

Sabarmati:

Origin: Mewar Hills. Dharoi project is on this river

Narmada:

Origin: Amarkantak Plateau
  • Largest west flowing river
  • Dhuadhar falls on this river
  • Forms estuary
  • Flows through rift valley
  • Tawa,penk,Barmer,Hiran are tributaries
Projects:Sardar Sarovar,Omkareswar

Mahi: Originates in Vindhya range

Tapi: Multai Satpura range is the place of origin.Forms estuary
Projects:Ukai, Kakrapara

Brahmaputra:
Originates as Chema Young Dum.Mariam La separates it from Manas sarovar.Flows as Tsangpo in Tibet,Jiangin in China and Dihang in India
Right bank- Tista,Manas,Suvarnsiri
Left bank-Dibang,Barak,Lohit
Sarda Dhubri waterway is on it

Indus:
From Nort to south its tributaries are Jhelum(From Bheri nag),Chenab(Bara lacha la),Ravi,Beas,Sutllej
Beas is entirely on India

Projects

Jhelum-Tulbul
Chenab-Dulhasti,Salal
Ravi-Thain
Beas-Pong
Sutlej-Indira Gandhi canal project( sutlej and beas confluence.Largest canal in India),Naptha Jhakri,Bhankra Nangal(largest multipurpose project in India)

Rivers in descending order
Ganga, Godavari,Krishna,Yamuna, Narmada,Ghagghar,Sutlej,Mahanadi,Kaveri,Son,Kosi,Brahmaputra,Ravi,Tapi


Lagoons-Ashtamudi,Chilka,Vembanad

  • Loktak in Manipur is the largest fresh water lake in India
  • Lonar in Maharashtra is a crater lake
  • Wullar in J&K is an Ox Bow lake and its the largest lake in the state
  • Nakki lake is in Mt Abu
  • Lake pichola in Udaipur
  • Jaisamand is the largest freshwater lake in Rajasthan
  • Sukhna in Chandigarh is an artificial lake
  • Highest area underirrigation-Rice,wheat,Oilseeds
  • A Treaty on Integrated Development of Mahakali River had been signed
    between the Government of India and Government of Nepal in February 1996; which
    came into force in June 1997 (Mahakali Treaty). Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project
    on river Mahakali (known as river Sarda in India), is the centerpiece of Mahakali
    Treaty.
AGRICULTURE:
  • India is the largest producer in the world of milk, cashew nuts, coconuts, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper.[2] It also has the world's largest cattle population (193 million).
  • India has a large range of varieties of fruit in its basket and accounts for 10 per
    cent of world’s total fruit production.India is the largest producer of mango, banana.
  • India is next only to China in area and production of vegetables and occupies
    prime position in the production of cauliflower, second in onion and third in cabbage
    in the world
  • India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices and spice products
  • The major
    plantation crops include coconut, arecanut, oil palm, cashew, tea, coffee and rubber,
    the minor plantation crops include cocoa
  • India is also the largest producer and consumer of cashew nuts
  • India is the third largest producer and consumer of fertilisers in the world after
    China and the USA
  • Kisan Call Centres have been functioning since 21st January, 2004 and working in 14
    different locations covering almost all the States of the country
  • India is endowed with the largest livestock population in the world. It accounts
    for 57 per cent of the world’s buffalo population and 14 per cent of the cattle population
  • The present availability of human protein in an Indian diet is
    10gm per person per day, as against a world average of 25gm
  • India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world.
  • India possesses 27 acknowledged indigenous breeds of cattle and seven breeds of
    buffaloes.
  • India, with poultry population of 489 million and estimated more than 47 billion
    eggs production per year, ranks among the top three countries in egg production in
    the world
  • six major fishing harbors viz., Cochin, Chennai,
    Visakhapatnam, Roychowk, Paradip and Season dock (Mumbai ) in India
  • Agriculture and allied sectors
    contribute nearly 22 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP of India), while about
    65-70 per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood
  • Chilly is the highest grown spice in India

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